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الأحد، 6 نوفمبر، 2011

Cold War and European

Cold War and European 

The great political consequence of World War II is the division of Europe by the "iron curtain" across Eastern Europe by the Red Army occupied the Communists impose their dictatorship (called "popular democracy") . Symbol of this division, Germany itself is split in two (Birth of the FRG and the GDR in 1949). Western pluralist democracies allied with the United States (NATO, 1949), facing the Soviet threat (the Warsaw Pact, 1955). But paradoxically, if Europe lived in fear of a third world war, the threat of nuclear-tipped missiles, the "balance of terror" between the two blocks lasted for almost half a century of stability, before the collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe in 1989-1991.

The Second World War ruined Europe, which suffered widespread destruction. But soon the Western Europe was rebuilt thanks to its industrial potential and the American economic aid (the Marshall Plan, 1947) and has during the "war boom" an economic growth of rising living standards and entry of the middle classes in the "consumer society". But three decades of prosperity and social democracy, during which the social achievements were many, nor does concernèrent southern Europe (except Italy), and above that of the East: the first is accessing the growth of living standards and democracy until 1970, the second until 1990.

Europe has lost much of its prestige among the colonized peoples (who participated alongside the British and French for two World Wars, but have not taken more rights within the colonial system). Between 1945 and 1965 mainly decolonization, strongly supported by the United States and the USSR, is mainly political: the economic, the former colonies, undermined by internal divisions, are very subservient to their former colonial powers, which continue to capture the bulk of resources including mining and pétrolières22.
In the West, the European Union began to build the economic union of six states: creation of the ECSC in 1951 and especially creation of the EEC by the Treaty of Rome in 1957.

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